Droplet explosion by shock waves, relevant to nuclear medicine (Vol. 49, No. 1)

Simulation of a disintegrating droplet.”

An arrow shooting through an apple, makes for a spectacular explosive sight in slow motion. Similarly, energetic ions passing through liquid droplets induce shock waves, which can fragment the droplets. In a study published recently, the authors have proposed a solution to observe the predicted ion-induced shock waves. They believe these can be identified by observing the way incoming ions fragment liquid droplets into multiple smaller droplets. The discovery of such shock waves would change our understanding of the nature of radiation damage with ions to cancerous tumour. This matters for the optimisation of ion-beam cancer therapy, which requires a thorough understanding of the relation between the physical characteristics of the incoming ion beam and its effects on biological tissues. The predicted shock waves significantly contribute to the thermomechanical damage deliberately inflicted on tumour tissue. Specifically, the collective flow intrinsic to the shock waves helps to propagate biologically harmful reactive species, such as free radicals, stemming from the ions. This mechanism increases the volume of tumour cells exposed to reactive species.

E. Surdutovich, A. Verkhovtsev and A. V. Solov’yov, Ion-impact-induced multifragmentation of liquid droplets, Eur. Phys. J. D 71, 285 (2017)
[Abstract]